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Terrain Experienced by the Apollo Crews

Copyright 2013 by the Editors of Working on the Moon.
Unless otherwise credited anaglyphs and stereopans
Copyright 2013 by Eric Jones.
Last revised 28 December 2013.

1. Introduction


The first two landings occurred on mare sites: Apollo 11 in the southwest portion of Mare Tranquilitatis; and Apollo 12 in Mare Insularum (formerly part of Mare Procellarum).  Both sites were selected because  they have relatively low numbers of larger craters and troublesome rocks per unit area,  thus giving the crews an excellent chance of finding good landing spots despite uncertainties about where they might end up within the landing ellipse.  Except for the inevitable carpeting of the surface by craters a meter across or smaller, the surface between craters bigger than a few meters across is relatively smooth.  Rises and falls of more than one or two meters over distances of a few tens of meters are rare in the small areas traversed by these crews.

Demonstration of a precision landing on Apollo 12 allowed relaxation of site selection criteria and, thereby, visits to site of greater geologic interest and more varied terrain.

Two crews landed on more heavily cratered, highlands sites.  The Apollo 14 crew visited  hilly terrain that may represent ejecta from the Imbrium impact.  As is characteristic of non-mare sites, the surface at Fra Mauro is much rougher than on the mare.  Overlapping of eroded craters of sizes of tens of meters or more have produced an undulating surface which rises and falls by up to 10-20 meters over distances of several tens of meters.  During their second EVA, the crew made a 1.4 km traverse up to the top of Cone Crater Ridge, which is about 85 meters above the LM location.   The Apollo 16 crew landed on a site in the Central Highlands made up of ejecta from the Nectaris impact overlain in areas between hills with a blanket of ejecta from Mare Imbrium.  The hills are known as the Descartes formation while the smoother area of Imbrium ejecta is known as the Cayley plains.  The terrain at the Apollo 16 site is generally smoother than at the Apollo 14 site, although there are substantial elevations differences over distance of 100-200 meters in some places.

The remaining two crews visited sites where mare lava abutts substantial mountains uplifted during major impacts:  Apollo 15 landed on a portion of Mare Imbrium bounded on the west by Hadley Rille, a lava flow channel 1500 meters wide and 300 meters deep, and on the south and east by the lunar Apennine Mountains, with summits reaching 3600-4200 meters above the valley floor.  Apollo 17 landed in a narrow valley on the fringe of Mare Serentitatis and bounded by peaks of 2000-2400 meters.  Both crews made geologic stops at various places on the mare, on the lower slopes of the mountains, at the edge of the rille, and at the base of an 80-m fault scarp that crosses the entrance to the Valley of Taurus-Littrow.

Each of the following sections begins with a brief description of a site or, in the case of the last three missions, a particular aspect of a site.  These descriptions are followed by crew comments and lists of panoramas, traverse sequence, photographs, and red-blue anaglyphs that illustrate aspects of the terrain.


2.  Apollo 11, Mare Tranquilitatis

LROC August 8 09:15:31 UTC 2009

Detail from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter image M104362199R, taken 8 August 2009 at
09:15:31 UTC. Resolution is 1.17 m/pixel and the solar elevation and azimuth were
36.1 and 269.0 degrees, respectively.  On level ground, the shadow cast by the
3.23-m-tall descent stage was only 4.4 meters long.
(Click on the image for a larger version.)



Armstrong and Aldrin stayed close to the LM.  Late in the EVA, Armstrong ran out to the southwest rim of Little West Crater, about 60 meters from the spacecraft.  Except for that brief excursion, the astronauts stayed within an area about the size of a baseball diamond or a soccer pitch. Armstrong and Aldrin took three complete pans and two partials during the EVA. Although they didn't get many instances of overlap, there are a few cases of overlapping images that give us some stereo of the site.  In the following table, the white lines drawn on details from the LROC image indicate the azimuths correponding to the centers of the various images.  These are based on Figure 3-15 in the Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report.  The black lines represent approximate azimuths of the anaglyph centers.  The crew also took sequences of photos out both windows before and after the EVA.


Mission Elapsed Time
Location
Assembly Link
Frames
Anaglyphs
Additional Material
Notes
104:02:26
LM Cabin
CDR Window Pan (5 Mb)


AS11-37-
5449-53
plus59

(color)


Taken by Armstrong out his window about 1.5 hours after the landing.  A crater doublet is visible below his window, with the younger of the two craters on the right.

Assembly by Syd Buxton.
104:02:26 LM Cabin
LMP Window Pan
AS11-37-
5454-58

(color)


Taken by Aldrin out his window.

Assembly by Syd Buxton.
109:32:26
Foot of the Ladder
Ladder Pan

Assembly by Dave Byrne.
AS11-40-
5850-58

(color)

Anaglyphs with context (5Mb)
LRO map

Remapped images:
5850, 5851,
5852, 5853,
5854, 5855,
5856, 5857,
5858

Indiv. anaglyphs:
5850-51
5852-53
5853-54
5855-56
5856-57
5857-58

Side-by-side l-r (parallel) stereo pairs:
5850-51
5852-53
5853-54
5855-56
5856-57
5857-58

Taken by Armstrong from near the foot of the ladder. See Fig. 3-15 from the Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report

The fresh crater on the right edge of the 5855-56 anaglyph is at the center of 5856; and can also be seen beyond the TV in AS11-37-5512, a photo Aldrin took out his window after the EVA.  In 5512, note that the larger boulders visible in the anaglyph seem to be associated an older, larger crater beyond the small, fresh crater.  In the  5855-56 anaglyph, the larger crater is hidden by its own rim.  The fresh crater is marked on the map made from the 8 August 2009 LROC image of the site.  It is about 70 meters from the LM.


109:32:26 Near the ladder
Ladder Mini-Pan (4Mb) AS11-40-
5859-61

(color)
Anaglyphs with context (2Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
5859-60
5859-61
5860-61
Neil stepped a short way from the ladder and took three frames looking past the ladder toward the south
110:31:47
About 7 meters west of the ladder
Plus-Z (west) Pan (7Mb)
AS11-40-
5881-91

(color)
Anaglyphs with context (9Mb)
LRO Map

Indiv. anaglyphs:
5882a-83
5883-84
5884-85
5885-86
5888-89
5889-90
5890-91

Taken by Aldrin about 7 meters west and a bit south of the ladder.  See Fig. 3-15 from the Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report.  Contains the only good Hasselblad image of Armstrong taken during the EVA.  The 5883-84 anaglyph shows the small, fresh crater seen in the 5855-56 anaglyph above.
110:43:33 About 10 meters north of the Plus-Y (north) footpad

Assembly by Yuri Krasilnikov
Plus-Y (north) Pan (7Mb)
AS11-40-
5905-16
Anaglyphs with context (11Mb)
LRO Map

Indiv. anaglyphs:
5907-08
5908-09
5909-10
5910-11
5913-14
5914-15
Buzz took this pan while standing on the southeast rim of a 5-m crater. See Fig. 3-15 from the Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report
110:55:49
About 15 meters radially outward from the SEQ Bay

Assembly by Yuri Krasilnikov
8 O'Clock Pan (6Mb)
AS11-40-
5930-41
Angalyphs with context (8Mb)
LRO Map

Indiv. anaglyphs:
5930-31
5931-32
5932-33
5933-34
5937-38
5938-39
5939-40
5940-41
Neil took this pan while Buzz was offloading the scientific packages. See Fig. 3-15 from the Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report. The 5931-32 anaglyph gives a view past the minus-Z (east) strut toward the fresh crater noted previously.  In the middle distance, we see a crater past the strut with footprints on its southeast rim, where Buzz stood to take the plus-Y (north) pan.
111:12:31
Southwest rim of Little West Crater
Little West Crater Partial Pan
AS11-40-
5954-61
Anaglyphs with context (8 Mb)
LRO map

Indiv. anaglyphs:
5954-55
5954-56
5957-56
5958-59

On his own initiative, Neil ran out to the crater late in the EVA, took the partial pan, and then ran back to the LM.  The crater diameter is about 33 meters. See Fig. 3-15 from the Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report.
112:20:56 LM cabin
Neil Post-EVA pan
AS11-37-
5496-5505


View to the south.  The Passive Seismic experiment is mostly hidden behind the upper thruster.
112:20:56
LM cabin
Buzz Post-EVA pan
AS11-37-
5510-17

LRO map The TV camera is about 20 meters from Buzz's window, compared with 150 meters for the fresh crater noted previously.



3. Apollo 12, Mare Insularum (formerly part of Procellarum)


Mission
Elapsed
Time
Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link Frames Anaglyphs
Additional
Material
Notes
111:58:43
LM Cabin
BW
CDR Window Pan (2Mb)
AS12-48-
7023-27


LRO Map (animated gif by Yuri Krasilnikov)
Taken out Pete's window about 1.5 hours after landing.  The LM shadow is about 65 to meters long.  It's tip falls in a shallow depression immediately west of the LM.
On the horizon, just to the left of the LM shadow is a crater with a raised rim and a large number of sizeable blocks.  As discussed at 112:15:41, that crater is actually 4.5 km from the LM and has a diameter of 0.5 km. Details from 7024 and 26 show a small rock and a small crater in the patch of soil in the middle of the LM shadow illuminated by sunlight shining through a small gap between the LM stages next to the ascent engine bell.
111:58:43 LM Cabin
BW
LMP Window Pan (3Mb)
AS12-48-
7028-32



The large mound is about one fiducial spacing in from the right edge of the image, not far below the horizon
116:22:29

Color
12 o'clock LM pan (5Mb)
AS12-46-
6730-45

Anaglpyhs with context (9Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
6730-31
6731-32
6732-33
6733-34
6734-35
6735-36
6736-37
6737-38
6740-41
6741-42
6742-43
6743-44
6744-45
6745-30
Pete mistakenly took this pan at 15-foot focus, rather than 74-feet.
116:24:47

Color 4 o'clock LM pan (11 Mb)
AS12-46-
6746-63

Anaglyphs with context (20Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
6746-47
6747-48
6748-49
6750-51
6751-52
6752-53
6753-54
6754-55
6755-56
6756-57
6757-58
6758-59
6759-60
6760-61
Taken at 15-foot focus
116:27:03

Color 8 o'clock LM pan (Mb)
AS12-46-
6764-82



Taken at 15-foot focus
116:57:52

Color ALSEP Site Pan (Mb)
AS12-46-
6796-811




118:18:09

Color 1st Middle Crescent Partial Pan (Mb)
AS12-46-
6836-44




118:18:41

Color 2nd Middle Crescent Partial Pan (Mb) AS12-46-
6945-52




118:28:21

Color
12 o'clock LM Pan (4Mb)
AS12-47-
6941-60

Anaglyphs with context (8Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
6942-43
6943-44
6944-45
6945-46
6946-47
6947-48
6948-49
6952-53
6953-54
6954-55
6955-56
6956-57
6957-58
6958-59
6959-60
Pete asked Al to take an unscheduled, 12 o'clock pan at the end of EVA-1, this time at 74-foot focus.
118:30:43


6 o'clock LM Pan (5Mb)
AS12-47-
6961-81

Anaglyphs with context (10Mb)
Indiv. anaglpyhs:
6962-63
6963-64
6964-65
6965-66
6966-67
6967-68
6968-69
6973-74
6974-75
6975-76
6976-77
6977-78
6978-79 

118:33:10


4 o'clock LM Pan (Mb)
AS12-47-
6982-7006



132:31:20


Triple Crater Portrait
AS12--7056-58



132:31:52


Triple Crater Pan
AS12-49-7201-16



132:38:22


Bench Crater Partial Pan Left-to-Right
AS12-49-7223-27



132:38:22


Bench Crater Partial Pan Right-to-Left AS12-49-7228-32



132:53:22


Traverse-to-Sharp Pan
AS12-49-7244-62



132:56:44


Sharp Crater Partial Pan
Right-to-Left
AS12-49-7263-69



132:57:33


Sharp Crater Partial Pan
Left-to-Right
AS12-49-7270-75



133:36:44


Halo Crater
AS12-49-7289-311



133:45:36


Surveyor Crater Partial Pan
AS12-49-7321-24



133:59:16


Surveyor III Portrait
AS12-7094-96



133:59:16

Surveyor III Portrait
AS12-48-7094-96 plus 7092 and 7097



134:06:25


Surveyor III Scoop Arm
AS12-48-7101-04



134:40:09


Blocky Crater
Partial Pan 1
AS12-48-7141-43



134:40:09


Blocky Crater
Partial Pan 2
AS12-48-7144-47



135:45:48


Post-EVA Window Pans
AS12-48-7153-7171





4. Apollo 14, Fra Mauro Formation


Mission Elapsed Time Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link Frames Anaglyphs
Additional
Material
Notes
109:46:23

LM Cabin

B&W

LMP Window Pan (10 Mb)
AS14-65-
9203-07




CDR Window Pan (4 Mb)
AS14-65-
9209-15



114:53:38
NE of LM
Color
4 o'clock LM Pan (11 Mb) AS14-66-
9236-57

Anaglyphs with context
(6.3 Mb)

Indiv. anaglyphs:
9236-37
9237-38
9238-39
9239-40
9240-41
9241-42
9242-43
9243-44
9244-45
9249-50
9250-51
9251-52
9252-53
9253-54
9255-56
Al Shepard got sharp images with good overlap throughout the sequence.  Because the site has height variations of several meters over distances of several tens of meters, the horizon is generally quite close.

SE of LM
Color
8 o'clock LM Pan (Mb)
AS14-66-
9271-93



114:57:20

W of LM

Color

12 o'clock LM Pan Eastern part (9 Mb)
AS14-66-
9298-312

Anaglyphs with context (15 Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs
9298-99
9299-01
9301-02
9302-04
9304-05
9305-06
9306-07
9307-09
9309-10
9310-11
9311-12

Western part (8 Mb)
AS14-66-
9294
-300 plus
9310-16

Anaglyphs with context (12 Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs
9294-95
9295-96
9296-97
9297-98
9298-99
9299-300
9310-11
9311-12
9312-13
9313-14
9314-15

119:42:01


Post-EVA1 Window Pan (Mb)
AS14-66-
9317-26



132:16:44


Station A Pan (Mb)
AS14-68-
9394-408



132:34:22


Station B Pan
AS14-64-9049-9072



132:50:31


Station B1 Pan
AS14-64-9075-9097



132:57:52


Station B2 Pan
AS14-68-9415-9429



133:14:34


Station B3 Pan
AS14-68-9430-42



133:23:40


Station C-prime pan, Southern portion (6Mb)
AS14-64-9111-21
Anaglyphs with context (11Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
9111-12
9112-13
9113-14
9114-15
9115-16
9116-17
9117-18
9118-19
9119-21

133:40:48

Station C1-    Saddle Rock Portrait AS14-68-5449-51


134:07:18


Station F Pan
AS14-64-9137-57



134:36:42


Station G Pan
AS14-64-9167-87



135:01:30


Station H Pan
AS14-68-9477-91



136:26:06
LM Cabin
Color
LMP Window Pan (5Mb)
AS14-66-9335-43





5 Apollo 15, Hadley



Mission Elapsed Time Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link Frames Anaglyphs Additional Material Notes
106:53:45

02:09
31 July 1971 UTC
Docking Hatch B&W SEVA pan, Northern portion (1.5Mb) AS15-85-
11355-62



The Stand-up EVA provided an opportunity to assess trafficability for the LRV.  Dave stood on the ascent engine cover with his arms and shoulders above the rim of the docking hatch.  Because he was constrained by the hatch opening and because most things in the field-of-view were at considerable distance from the LM, little useful stereo that can be extracted from the pan.



Eastern portion (3Mb)
AS15-85-
11363-71

11370-71





Southern portion (2.5Mb)

11373+75


106:56:54
Docking Hatch B&W
500-mm, Hill 305 (2Mb)
AS15-84-
11239-41


Metric camera frames A15-M1134-5 (labelled)
The base of Hill 305 is about 15 km from the LM on a bearing of 295.
106:56:54 Docking Hatch B&W
500-mm, Pluton Crater (2Mb) AS15-84-
11242-43


Metric camera frames A15-M1134-5 (labelled) Pluton Crater, 800 meters across, is about 3 km from the LM on a bearing of 346.  Although Dave was usually able to keep the long lens steady; here, the righthand frame is particularly blurred.
106:56:54
Docking Hatch B&W
500-mm, Chain Crater (3Mb)
AS15-84-
11244-46

Detail (0.5Mb) from June 1971 Apollo 15 Shaded Relief Map (6Mb)
Chain Crater is immediately southwest of Pluton. 
106:57:25
Docking Hatch

500-mm, northern Hill 305
(5.6Mb)

AS15-84-
11247-49


Detail (0.3Mb) from LTO41B4 (12Mb)
A deeply-shadowed face of Mt. Hadley is on the right.  Beyond the point where it reaches the MESA surface is a northern portion of Hill 305.  Distances from the LM are shown in the detail.
106:58:07

02:13
31 July 1971 UTC
Docking Hatch

500-mm, Silver Spur (9Mb)
AS15-84-
11250-53


Labeled comparison (0.2Mb) of AS15-85-11371 with a detail from AS15-M-0414
B&W pan image 11371 taken at 02:09 UTC.  Mapping Camera image M-0414 (13Mb med. res.)  taken at 02:13 UTC.
106:58:27
SEVA Color Pan


AS15-87-11730-58



107:31:57
Post-SEVA CDR Window Pan


AS15-85-11383-93



107:31:57 Post-SEVA LMP Window Pan

AS15-85-11394-97



122:14:35
Station 1
B&W
Northern portion
(6Mb)

AS15-85-
11398-407

Anaglyphs with context
11398-407
(14Mb)

Indiv. anaglyphs:
11398-99
11399-00
11400-01
11401-02
11402-03
11403-04
11404-05
11405-06
11406-07

122:38:47
First Station 2 Pan


AS15-85-11422-38



123:17:15
Second Station 2 Pan


AS15-85-11446-65



123:19:35
Station 2 500mm Left-to-Right strip of rille wall at Trophy Point


AS15-84-11254-68



123:20:51 Station 2 500mm Left-to-Right strip slightly below the prior strip


AS15-84-11269-75




Station 2 500mm Vertical Strip at Trophy Point


AS15-84-11276-83



123:21:30
Station 2 500mm rill bottom


AS15-84-11284-88



123:45:01
Seatbelt Basalt


AS15-86-11583-587



125:45:12
EVA-1 Close-out


AS15-86-11600-02



143:38:21
EVA-2 Outbound Traverse Pan


AS15-85-11472-80



143:55:26
First Station 6 Pan


AS15-85-11481-97



144:14:17
Second Station 6 Pan


AS15-85-11507-22



144:46:38
Station 6 500mm

Mount Hadley summit 1st strip
AS15-84-11292-301



144:47:51
Station 6 500mm

Mount Hadley summit - 2nd strip
AS15-84-11302-8




Station 6 500mm

Mt. Hadley Vertical Sequence
AS15-84-11309-15



144:50:48
Station 6 500mm

"Leading edge of Swann Mountain" AS15-84-11316-7



144:50:48
Station 6 500mm

Left flank of Mt. Hadley AS15-84-11318-22



144:50:48
Station 6 500 mm

LM and Pluton Crater AS15-84-11324-5



144:50:48 Station 6 500mm

Mt. Hadley striations AS15-84-11326-7



144:50:48
Station 6 500mm

lower left flank of Mt. Hadley AS15-84-11328-30



144:50:48 Station 6 500mm

Mt. Hadley composite (6Mb)
AS15-84-11292-330


High-resolution composite created by David Harland by superimposing the frames taken with the 500mm lens on AS15-90-11488, a frame from Jim's first Station 6 Pan.
144:50:48 Station 6 500mm

Hadley Rille
AS15-84-11333-5



144:50:48 Station 6 500mm
Mt. Hadley Delta summit outcrops
AS15-84-11336-46


144:50:48 Station 6 500mm
View to the East
AS15-84-11347-49


145:07:26
Station 6a Pan

Portion taken before Dave moved the LRV
AS15-90-12179-93




Station 6a Pan
Pan completion
AS15-90-12193-8


145:28:12 Station 7 Pan


AS15-90-12201-22


145:55:13
Station 7 mosaic

Breccia boulder
AS15-86-11682, 84, and 88



146:30:33
Station 4 Pan

Dune Crater
AS15-90-12237-48


Partial pan ended when Jim's film magazine jammed.
147:27:12
EVA-2 LM pans

12 o'clock pan
AS15-87-11785-804



147:27:12


4 o'clock pan
AS15-87-11805-21


147:27:12

8 o'clock pan
AS15-87-11822-40


147:38:40
EVA-2 ALSEP pan


AS15-87-11843-58


148:02:20
ALSEP site

'Station 8 pan' AS15-92-12420-38



164:23:13
ALSEP site

Partial Pan
AS15-88-11878-81



164:26:56
ALSEP site

Pan
AS15-82-11047-64


Pan taken after core extraction
165:05:09
Station 9 Pan


AS15-82-11066-92


Rim littered with regolith breccias, like Apollo 17s Van Serg Crater
165:21:14
Station 9a Pan

Hadley Rille
AS15-82-11110-27


165:26:44
Station 9a 500mm

Hadley Rille, horizontal strip inc. outcrops
AS15-89-12015-27



165:27:24
Station 9a 500mm

Talus slope below outcrops
AS15-89-12028-44

Combined versions to link
165:28:46
Station 9a 500mm

Outcrops, vertical strip
AS15-89-12045-8


165:28:46 Station 9a 500mm
Outcrops, 2nd vertical strip AS15-89-12049-52


165:28:46 Station 9a 500mm
Outcrops, 3rd vertical strip AS15-89-12053-56


165:29:16
Station 9a 500mm
Debris-filled crater in the west wall
AS15-89-12057-62


165:29:51
Station 9a 500mm

Debris-filled crater and mare surface west of the rille
AS15-89-12063-68


165:29:51 Station 9a 500mm
Debris-filled crater, vertical sequence AS15-89-12069-73


165:31:38
Station 9a 500mm
Line of boulders in west wall
AS15-89-12075-78


165:31:38 Station 9a 500mm
Debris-filled crater to Trophy Point
AS15-89-12079-82


165:31:38 Station 9a 500mm
Debris-filled crater and slope below AS15-89-12083-86



Station 9a 500mm
Debris-filled crater composite
AS15-89-12057-73 plus
AS15-89-12083-86



165:35:02
Station 9a 500mm
East side of the rille to the south
AS15-89-12087-94






AS15-89-12095-96 ?


166:18:56
Station 10

Jim's pan
AS15-82-11165-84



166:20:02
Station 10
B&W
Portion showing Rim Crater (4Mb)

AS15-82-
11177-82

Anaglyphs with context
11177-82
(8Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
11177-78
11178-79
11179-80
11180-81
11181-82
The pan location is marked in a labeled map (6Mb) made from LROC image M111571816R
166:20:51
Station 10 500mm

West wall outcrops
AS15-89-12097-116



166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
West wall outcrops farther south
AS15-89-12117-21


166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
Debris-filled crater
AS15-89-12122-26


166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
Mare surface beyond debris-filled crater
AS15-89-12127-31


166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
Below debris-filled crater
AS15-89-12132-36


166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
Crater composite
AS15-89-12122-36



166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
Vertical through West Wall Crater
AS15-89-12137-42


166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
Top of talus slope
AS15-89-12143-44


166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
Trophy Point
AS15-89-12145-48


166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
West Wall composite
AS15-89-12122-48






AS15-89-12149-51
?


166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
West Wall vertical sequence
AS15-89-12152-56


166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
West Wall 2nd vertical sequence AS15-89-12157-59



Station 10 500mm
Outcrop composite
AS15-89-12097-116 and AS15-89-12151-59



166:20:51 Station 10 500mm
Slope into the rille from the East rim
AS15-89-12160-62


166:41:17
Return to the LM

LM and Swann Hills from the LRV
AS15-82-11192-4



167:10:16
EVA-3 Close-out 500mm

Big Rock Mountain
AS15-89-12165-71


167:10:16 EVA-3 Close-out 500mm
Hadley Delta Summit
AS15-89-12173-4


167:10:16 EVA-3 Close-out 500mm
Left flank of "leading edge' hill
AS15-89-12172 and 77



167:10:16
EVA-3 Close-out 500mm
outcrops
AS15-89-12175-76





























6. Apollo 16, Descartes Highlands

6.1 LM/ALSEP

Mission Elapsed Time Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link Frames Anaglyphs
Additional Material Notes
106:15:45
LM Cabin, CDR Window
C
Post-landing CDR Window pan
AS16-113-
18296-303



106:15:45 LM Cabin, LMP Window C
Post-landing LMP Window pan
AS16-113-
18304-10



119:33:46
LM
C
4 o'clock pan
AS16-113-
18313-30






Northern portion
18313-21






Southern portion
18321-30



120:33:48
LMP walks from LM to ALSEP
TV



5 x normal speed TV clip ( 6.8 Mb )
Shows Charlie carrying the ALSEP packages west from the LM. He has to climb a noticeable slope in the later parts of the clip.

120:38:28 Duke: (Turning to his right and facing north) I just climbed a little ridge.

120:38:33 England: Good show, Charlie.  Don't strain yourself there. Just take it easy ...  In fact, just stand there for a while.

120:38:40 Duke: (Turning to his right and facing north) I just climbed a little ridge.  (Responding)  I am.
122:12:32
ALSEP
C
ALSEP pan
AS16-113-
18349-69






Northern portion
18349-60






Southern portion
18361-70











143:13:46 LM, early EVA-2
4 o'clock pan (8Mb)
AS16-107-
17420-40






4 o'clock pan
Northern portion (4Mb)

AS16-107-
17420-30

Anaglyphs with context (7Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
17420-21
17421-22
17422-23
17423-24
17424-25
17425-26
17426-27
17427-28
17428-29
17429-30





Southern portion (3Mb) AS16-107-
17430-40

Anaglyphs with context (6Mb) Indiv. anaglyphs:
17430-31
17431-32
17432-33
17433-34
17434-35
17435-36
17436-37
17437-38
17438-39
17439-40


Station 10







Station 10-prime

















6.2  EVA-1 Traverse and Station 1 and 2


Mission Elapsed Time Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link Frames Anaglyphs
Additional Material Notes
122:58:46
Cayley Plains, west of the LM
B&W
Traverse photos:
LM to just south of Halfway Crater (13Mb)
AS16-109-
17747-68

EVA-1 map based on LRO frame nacr00000ad8, taken
12 July 2009 19:04:51 UTC, and Figures 3 and 6 in Chapter D1 of the  USGS Professional Paper.

123:18:46
Cayley Plain, west of the LM
B&W
Traverse photos:
Halfway Crater to Plum Crater (4Mb)
AS16-109-
17769-74


Begins with a shot at the rim of the crater they mistook for Plum, taken after they got back on the Rover.
123:25:08
Station 1
B&W
Charlie's pan
(8Mb)

AS16-109-
17775-93

Station 1 map, Figures 11 and 12 in Chapter D1 of the  USGS Professional Paper. Charlie's pan is Pan 4, taken at the corresponding 'A' in the Station map.



Northern portion (3Mb)
17775-17785
Anaglyphs with context (10Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
17776-77
17777-78
17778-79
17779-81
17779-80
17780-81
17781-82
17782-83
17783-84
17784-85








17783-84 not used in the stereo assembly



Southern portion (2.4Mb)
17787-93
Anaglyphs with context (5Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
17787-88
17789-90
17790-91
17791-92
17792-93

124:02:22
Station 1
c
John's pan (12Mb)
AS16-114-
18415-32

Station 1 map John's pan is Pan 5 in the Station map.  Apparently, at about the time John took 18426, Charlie started moving south from where he'd been sampling when John took 18423 and 24.  John may have decided to wait for Charlie to get into the field-of-view before taking 18427.



Northern portion (7Mb)
18416-23






Southern portion (6Mb)
18425-32



124:23:34
Station 2

Charlie's Spook pan (9Mb)
AS16-109-
17811-27

LRO detail from nacr00000ad8

Station 2 Map
Pan taken halfway between the LRV and the rim of Spook Crater



Northern portion (3Mb)
17811-19
Anaglyphs with context (7Mb)
Remapped images:
17811, 17812,
17813, 17814,
17815, 17816,
17817, 17818,
17819

Indiv. Anaglyphs:
17811-12
17812-13
17813-14
17814-15
17815-16
17816-17
17817-18
17818-19

Side-by-side l-r (parallel) stereo pairs:
17811-12
17812-13
17813-14
17814-15
17816-17
17817-18
17818-19


Buster Crater is beyond the LRV.  The LRV is  about 20m from where Charlie took the pan and the near rim of Bust is about 75 m.  Tire tracks  made when they drove up close to the rim of Buster at about 123:08:09 can be seen beyond the Rover on the right.



Southern portion (5Mb)
17819-27
Anaglyphs with context (6Mb)
Indiv. Anaglyphs
17819-20
17820-21
17821-22
17822-23
17823-24
17824-25
17825-26
17826-27

124:23:34


Charlie's partial Buster pan
(3Mb)

AS16-109-
17828-36
Stereo partial pan (6Mb) Indiv. anaglyphs:
17828-29
17832-33
17835-36

124:48:20
Cayley Plain, west of LM
B&W
Traverse photos: Station 2 to LM (7Mb)
AS16-109-
17849-62



Following the outbound tracks, and doing some tacking to avoid up-Sun.









6.3 500mm photos

MIssion Elapsed Time
Location
Color/B&W
Assembly Link
Frames
Anaglyphs
Additional Material
Notes
124:28:40
Station 2
B&W
Stone Mtn Portrait (0.4 Mb)
AS16-112-18193-232


Charlie seems to have rushed this sequence.  Many frames are badly blurred. Assembly by Dave Byrne
124:28:40 Station 2 B&W South Ray Crater
AS16-112-18233-39

Assembly by Dave Byrne


























































6.4 EVA-2 Traverse:  Cayley Plain south of the LM to Stone Mountain; Stations 8 and 9




Misison
Elapsed
Time
Location Color/
B&W
Assembly
Link
Frames Anaglyphs Additional
Material
Notes
Outbound from the LM to the base of Stone Mountain
143:31:21 Cayley Plain south of the LM B&W
Traverse photos:
LM to Survey Ridge (3Mb)
AS16-110-
17870-88




Drive from the LM to Survey Ridge, a linear feature that runs NE to SW and rise perhaps 10 meters above its surroundings
143:42:15
Cayley Plain, Survey Ridge
B&W
Traverse photos:  on Survey Ridge (4Mb)
AS16-110-
17889-907



Survey Ridge is on a bright part of a ray extending out from South Ray Crater.  It has a large concentration of ejecta, generally of a larger average size than than the South Ray ejecta seen on other segments of this traverse.
143:52:23
Cayley Plain
B&W
Traverse photos: Survey Ridge to Stone Mountain (5Mb)
AS16-110-
17908-17



Drive from the southwestern end of Survey Ridge to the base of Stone Mountain
Inbound from the base of Stone Mountain
146:29:22 Cayley Plain south of the LM B&W Traverse photos:
Station 6 to Station 8 (3 Mb)
AS16-108-
17634-62


The route is largely on a ray of blocky ejecta from South Ray Crater.
















1474815 Cayley Plain south of the LM
B&W Traverse photos:
Station 8 to Station 9 (5 Mb )
AS16-108-
17703-13





















6.5 EVA-2 Traverse: Stone Mountain and Stations 4, 5, and 6


Misison
Elapsed
Time
Location Color/
B&W
Assembly
Link
Frames Anaglyphs Additional
Material
Notes
Outbound Climb to Station 4
143:54:47
Stone Mountain
B&W
Traverse photos: Outbound climb to Station 4 (Part 1) (Mb)
AS16-110-
17918-31











































145:58:36 Stone Mountain B&W
Traverse photos:
Drive from Station 5 to Station 6
( 3Mb )
AS16-108-
17585-605


Station 6 is at the foot of of Stone Mountain.  The map distance is 600 meters and the average slope is about 7/60 or about 6.7 degrees.




















6.6  EVA-3 Traverse and Station 13


Misison
Elapsed
Time
Location Color/
B&W
Assembly
Link
Frames Anaglyphs Additional
Material
Notes








































168:09:26 North Ray Ridge
B&W Traverse photos: Station 11 to Station 13 - Part 1 (8Mb) AS16-106-
17357-73


Drive down a steep slope from the rim of North Ray crater onto the North Ray Ridge, as far as the tip.
168:14:31
North Ray Ridge, Cayley Plain
B&W
Traverse photos: Station 11 to Station 13 - Part 2 (7Mb)
AS16-106-
17373-85



Final descent off North Ray ridge and onward to Station 13



















7. Apollo 17, Valley of Taurus-Littrow


(The following has been derived from the Apollo 17 Mission Report, Lunar Sourcebook, and USGS Apollo 17 Professional Paper.)

The Valley of Taurus-Littrow is on the southeast margin of the Serenitatis Basin, with its long axis pointing toward the center of the basin.  It is flanked on the north and south by mountains that rise two km or more above the valley floor.  The valley and mountains form a classic graben/horst geologic structure, which resulted from outward displacement of material at the edge of the basin during the impact, 3.87 billion years ago.  Relatively soon after the impact event, lava began to fill the Serentitatis Basin.  Geophysical measurements made during the mission suggest that the lava fill at Taurus-Littrow is about 1000 - 1200 m thick.  The ages of the basalt samples returned by the crew indicate that the filling ended about 3.6 to 3.7 billion years ago.  The thickness of the regolith layer accumulated since that time is not well determined at Taurus-Littrow.  Typical thicknesses on the lunar mare are about 5 meters. Regolith sampled in the center of the valley is composed almost entirely of basalt fragments, indicating that material thrown off the mountains is not an important contributor.  Serentitatis is a relatively old mare, suggesting that typical regolith thickness at Taurus-Littrow is greater than 5 meters.  Evidence at Shorty Crater indicates a regolith thickness of 10 to 15 meters while, at Van Serg Crater, the regolith thickness is more than 15 meters.  Like all mare surfaces, the valley floor has relatively few large craters but increasing numbers at smaller sizes.  Overall, the valley is relatively flat, sloping down about 1 degree toward its eastern end.  On smaller, local scales, the cumulative effect of randomly-distributed impacts is an surface between the larger craters that rises and falls a few meters over distances of several tens of meters.

Trafficability on the valley floor is good.  During the three traverses, Cernan and Schmitt drove a map distance of 32.3 kilometers in 253.5 minutes, giving an average speed of 7.6 km/hr.  At that speed Cernan had to keep his eye on the road to spot hazards but, generally, was able to see hazards in plenty of time to steer around them.  The total odometer distance travelled during the three traverses was 36.0 kilometers, only 11.5 percent greater than the map distance.  The most important hazards were fresh craters from about the same size as the Rover (3 meters long) up to a size where crater rims and ejecta are easily visible in the rolling terrain.  Around the LM, the average spacing of fresh craters bigger than 3 meters is roughly 40 meters.

The mountains that bound the valley are composed of pre-Serentitatis material uplifted during the event.  These were then draped with Serentitatis ejecta, much of it impact-melt breccias.  During the second and third EVAs, the crew visited locations on the lower slopes of the North and South Masiffs and the Scultured Hills where they could examine and sample boulders that had tumbled down into reach from outcrops of Serenitiatis ejecta high on the mountains.  The slopes above these locations are about 26 degrees.

Because of the slopes, impacts on the mountain flanks produces net downward motion of ejecta.  Rock outcrops on the upper third of the South Massif and the upper two thirds of the North Massif indicate that the regolith on those parts of the mountains is thin.  On the lower parts mountains, depth of the regolith increases toward the bottom and then decreases with distance out on the valley floor.  At about the 4800 m contour at the base on the North Massif in the 1974 Lunar Topophotomap of the landing site, the slope changes for about 26 degrees to something like 16 degrees on the accumulated talus.  Simplistic geometry suggests talus accumulations at the base of the mountain of up to 40 meters.

One notable feature of the mountain flanks are tracks made by boulders as they bounce, tumble, roll, and slide down from various outcrops after being dislodged by impacts or seismic activity.  Figure 8-15 from the Apollo 17 Prelimiinary Science Report shows identified boulder tracks on the North Massif.


7.1 Valley Floor, LM/ALSEP/SEP



Mission Elapsed Time Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link
Frames Anaglyphs
Additional Material Notes
115:03:02 LM Cabin, LMP Window
C
Pre-EVA LMP Window AS17-147-
22469-76





LM Cabin, CDR Window

Pre-EVA CDR Window AS17-147-
22479-91




117:47:43
4 o'clock LM position
C

AS17-147-
22492-521







Western portion 22493-504,
517 to 519


Clockwise from the LM to the Wessex Cleft




Northern portion 22493-509


Clockwise from down-Sun to up-Sun



Eastern portion 22504-14


Clockwise from Wessex Cleft to the LM










120:36:02
Geophone 4
C
Geo. 4 Partial AS17-147-
22528-32




120:40:30
Geophone 3
C

AS17-147-
22544-62







Northern portion 22544-55


Clockwise from down-Sun to up-Sun



Southern portion 22553-61


Clockwise from up-Sun to down-Sun
120:48:56
ALSEP
C

AS17-147-
22569-88







Northern portion


Clockwise from down-Sun to up-Sun



Southern portion


Clockwise from up-Sun to down-Sun
120:55:55
ALSEP
BW

AS17-136-
20683-710







Northern portion
(3Mb)
20687-99
Anaglyphs with context
(7Mb)

Indiv. Anaglyps:

20688-89
20689-90
20690-91
20691-92
20692-93
20693-94
20694-95
20695-96
Clockwise from down-Sun to up-Sun mid-distance
anaglyphs done



Southern portion (3Mb)
20685-86 plus
20699-710
Anaglyphs with context (7Mb)
Indiv. Anaglyphs:
20685-86
20701-02
20702-03
20703-04
20704-05
20705-06
20706-08
20708-09
Clockwise from up-Sun to down-Sun mid-distance
anaglyphs done
123:06:24
SEP
C
Partial Pan
AS17-134-
20437-46




127:02:28 South Massif outcrops, LMP window


AS17-144-
21983-88




127:02:28 North Massif boulder tracks, LMP Window


AS17-144-
21991-93


Taken with the 500-mm lens. The images are blurred by camera motion due to the difficulty Jack had  in aiming the camera off to his right in the cramped confines of the LM cabin. The 'dark boulder'  and the lower part of its track are on the right.  Orientation  of the assembly matches that seen in AS17-147-22502, a frame from   Jack's 4 o'clock pan taken at 117:47:43, early in EVA-1.  A second boulder,  below and slightly to the left of the dark boulder, also has an associated track.
127:02:28
North Massif outcrops, LMP window


AS17-144-
21994-98







7.2  Valley Floor,  EVA-1 Traverse and Station 1


Mission Elapsed Time Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link Frames Anaglyphs
Additional Material Notes
121:50:51
Valley floor

(Prelim. Sci. Rpt fig6-4c)
B&W

Traverse photos:
SEP to Sta 1 (16Mb)
AS17-136-
20723-38


AS17-134-
20390-93

LRO detail (1 Oct 2009) of EVA-1 traverse
Because Jack is carrying a seismic charge, he only averages  about 1 picture every 75 meters during the drive.
122:26:14 Gene's Station 1 Pan
C
AS17-134-
20408-31






Northern portion 20408 to 11,
20426 to 31


Clockwise from down-Sun to up-Sun



Southern portion 20411 to 25

Clockwise from up-Sun to down-Sun
122:32:24 Station 1 B&W

AS17-136-
20744-76






Northern portion 20745 to 62

Clockwise from down-Sun to up-Sun



Southern portion 20764 to 76

Clockwise from up-Sun to down-Sun
122:36:58
Valley Floor
B&W
Traverse photos:

Return from Sta. 1 - Part 1 (17Mb)
AS17-136-
20777-96


LRO detail (1 Oct 2009) of EVA-1 traverse This sequence ends at about 122:40:04  just before Gene turns to his left (west) so Jack can take some pictures of the white mantle and the LM. Jack has taken 20 pictures during the 400-meter drive, or about one every 20 meters
122:40:04
Valley floor
B&W
Traverse photos:
Return from Sta. 1 - Part 2 (13Mb)
AS17-136-
20797-814


LRO detail (1 Oct 2009) of EVA-1 traverse Sequence ends just before deployment of EP-7 at 122:42:15
122:42:15 Valley floor
B&W
C
EP-7 "Locators"
AS17-136-
20814-15

AS17-134-
20433-34


LRO detail (1 Oct 2009) of EVA-1 traverse "Locator" shots taken before Jack deploys the seismic charge
122:43:12
Valley floor
B&W
EP-7 LRV Pan

see, also, a
PDF version
(12Mb)

AS17-136-
20815-28

LRO detail (1 Oct 2009) of EVA-1 traverse Gene drove the Rover in a slow, clockwise circle around the seismic charge while Jack took a sequence of thirteen frames.  The stitched assembly uses on the upper right portion of each frame
122:43:44
Valley floor
B&W
Return trv from Sta. 1 - Part 3
(13Mb)

AS17-136-
20828-44

LRO detail of EVA-1 traverse Sequence ends as they emerge from a depression where Jack photographed what they believe is bedrock at 122:45:33.  The photos of the bedrock are probably 20838 to 20842.  The bearing  and distance to the LM is 336 and 0.4 km.
122:45:33 Valley floor
B&W
Return from Sta. 1 - Part 4
(16Mb)

AS17-136-
20844-63

LRO detail (1 Oct 2009) of EVA-1 traverse the sequence ends when Gene drop Jack off at the SEP receiver before laying down orthogonal Rover tracks to guide deployment of the SEP antenna wires.




















































7.2 EVA-2


Mission
Elapsed
Time
Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link Frames Anaglyphs
Additional Material Notes
143:01:23 EVA-2,  LM, 8 o'clock


AS17-137-
20866-93



143:01:52 Station 2 Boulder 1, Gene

AS17-137-
20903-08



143:01:52 Station 2 Boulder 1, Jack

AS17-138-
21030-35



143:10:08 Station 2 Boulder 2, Gene

AS17-137-
20912-23



143:22:02 Station 2, Gene

AS17-137-
20926-56



143:37:16 Station 2, Jack

AS17-138-
21053-73





















































































































































7.3 EVA-3 Traverse to North Massif, Turning Point Rock, Station 6, and Station 7

Gene and Jack took multiple photographs at three locations on the North Massif:  Turning Point Rock, where they maneuvered the Rover to get good photographic coverage but didn't dismount; and Stations 6 and 7.  These three sites are marked in a CSM Pan Camera detail, along with three boulders that serve are markers in some of the photographs.


Mission Elapsed Time Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link Frames Anaglyphs
Additional Material Notes
164:24:50
Valley floor, north of the LM
B&W
LM to Rover Sample Stop ( 22 Mb )
AS17-141-
21519-41



164:33:38
Valley floor, north of the LM B&W LRV Sample Stop to first view of Henry ( 8 Mb )
AS17-141-
21542-49



164:37:49
Valley floor, north of the LM B&W Henry to the foot of the North Massif
AS17-141-
21549-59









LRO Detail (1 Oct 2009) TPR, Stations 6 and 7









166:26:58
Station 7 C Gene's Sta. 7 pan (9Mb) AS17-146-
22339-63






Southern portion (4Mb)

Views out into the valley and along the slopes to the east and west.
22339 to 55
Anaglyphs with context (8Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
22339-40
22340-41
22341-42
22342-43
22343-44
22344-45
22347-48
22348-49
22349-50
22350-51
22351-52
22352-53
22353-54
22354-55
Labelled version (1Mb)





7.3 EVA-3 Traverse to Sculptured Hills, Station 8, Station 9




Mission Elapsed Time Location Color/
B&W
Assembly Link Frames Anaglyphs
Additional Material Notes
















































167:07:50 Station 8 C Gene's Station 8 Pan (9 Mb)

Gene took this pan from a location on the slope, well above the Rover
AS17-146-
22375-97
Anaglyphs with context (17 Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
22375-76
22376-77
22377-78
22378-79
22379-81
22381-82
22382-83
22383-84
22384-86
22387-88
22388-89
22389-90
22392-94
22394-95
22395-96
22396-97

168:20:21
Station 9

Jack's First Station 9 Pan (16Mb)

Jack took this pan from the west rim of VanSerg Crater
AS17-142-21798-824
Anaglyphs with context (26 Mb)
Indiv. anaglyphs:
21800-01
21801-03
21804-06
21805-07
21806-08
21807-09
21809-11
21810-12
21811-13
21812-14
21814-16
21816-17
21817-18
21818-19
21819-20



























A17pan21994-97

North Massif Outcrops.  Jack continued taken 500-mm photos out his window, taking this portrait of outcrops
on the upper part of the mountain.   Assembly by Eric Jones. Click on the image for a full-resolution version.

Gene's 500mm shots taken outside the LM


Photographic Sites on the North Massif






TPR, Sta6, Sta7
              contours


Overlay of details from the 1974 Topophotomap and Pan Camera frame AS17-2309
showing the locations and elevations of Turning Point Rock and Stations 6 and 7.
The scale and the lower right indicates 1 km.  The contour  intervals are 20 m.

(Click on the image for a larger version.)



Station 7


  For this second EVA-3 geology stop on North Massif, Cernan and Schmitt parked near a a 3-m high boulder, which proved to have been at its current location (its emplacment age) for 28 million years.  The maximum dimension of the boulder is about 5 meters.  From page 6-27 in the Preliminary Science Report), Although there is no visible boulder track, there is little doubt that the Station 7 boulder was derived from the North Massif because of its similarity in composition ahd structure to other material collected from the Massif.  Because it is considerably smaller than the Station 6 boulder, it probably bounded downslope - as did those of comparable size on the South Massif (fig 6-6) - rather than rolled." As shown in the superposition of the 1974 contour map on the pan camera frame for Stations 6 and 7, Station 7 is at an elevation of about 4720 m, which is 40 to 60 meters above the valley floor at this east-west location.  The local slope is about 9 degrees.


Apollo 17 Station 7 plan map

From the
USGS Apollo 17 Professional Paper, page 146.






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